Wednesday, May 14, 2014

2 DNA Additions Genetic Code & Plant/Bacteria/Fungi/Amoeba DNA CROSS

SAY HELLO TO SYNTHIA: In 2003, JCVI successfully synthesized a small virus that infects bacteria. By 2008, the JCVI team was able to synthesize a small bacterial genome. On May 6, 2010, JCVI revealed they had already created a self-replicating bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome they named “synthetic Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0”.

This completely synthetic cell with its computer designed genome has absolutely no natural DNA. The ETC group from Canada named it Synthia and it contains added watermark chains to identify the genome as artificial. It also has antibiotic resistance indicators. One can only speculate why this artificial bacterium has an inherent programmed capability to resist antibiotics.

This new life form has the ability to replicate itself and organically function in any cell into which it has been introduced. Its DNA is artificial and it’s this synthetic DNA that takes control of the cell and is credited with being the building block of life. This is the first self-replicating synthetic bacterial cell thanks to its computer generated DNA. All of the funding for this came from Synthetic Genomics Inc, the company BP has a sizable equity position and alliance with. BP is definitely way beyond petroleum just as their new slogan publicizes.

Why watermark this artificial genome? Doing so makes it identifiable as the unique and patented (privately owned) asset it is. What happens if a human becomes infected with a life-threatening variant bacterial species of Synthia? If you use Penicillin to fight the infection, it won’t do any good. Antibiotic resistance is part of its DNA sequence, so any use of antibiotics would be a waste of time.

What would happen if mankind is contaminated by this self-reproducing artificial life form by contact or by breathing it? Would we become subjective to the DNA of the synthetic cells flowing throughout our bodies? Would the Synthia cells combine with other bacterium within us to create a new deadly bacterium?
"In a report published Wednesday in Nature, the scientists said they created two additions to the normal genetic code, and then prompted bacteria to incorporate these pieces of man-made DNA with few ill effects.
By one recent estimate, the market for biologic and protein-based therapies is expected to reach $165 billion a year by 2018."
..."May 8, 2014 6:45 AM
Man-Made DNA Opens Doors
New Treatments Seen From Breakthrough; 'People Thought This Wasn't Possible'
©2014 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
By Robert Lee Hotz
Researchers for the first time created microbes containing artificial DNA, expanding the universal genetic code that guides life."

Genetic material is inherited from parents to offspring and this process is known as vertical transmission. However genetic material can be transferred form one organism to another in a non-genealogical fashion. Such type of transmission is defined as horizontal transmission or gene transfer (HGT) (1). Although mechanisms for the transfer of genetic material between organisms were known from the early years of molecular biology and genetics research, and the theoretical potential of cross-species gene transfer in evolution was proposed in the 1980s, the concept of HGT emerged in the 1990s (2). It was invoked as an alternative explanation for rarely observed incongruent phylogenetic relationships between species (2). However, the recent availability of genome sequence information and the thorough study of multiple pro- and eukaryotic genomes has revealed that HGT is pervasive and powerful among microbes (1,2,3). Additionally, more recent studies have shown that HGT is also evident between animals and bacteria, with the bacteria being the donor species (4,5). In plants, HGT has been relatively well documented, and in most cases involves the transfer of genetic material from a parasite to its host plant. Yet, HGTs with the plant species being the donor have rarely been documented.

Recently Nikolaidis et al (6) reported a rare case of HGT from plants to multiple plant parasites or free living microorganisms. Specifically, they found that members of the plant expansin gene family, which code for plant cell-wall loosening proteins and are comprised of two distinct protein domains D1 and D2, were transferred from plants to bacteria, fungi, and unicellular eukaryotes (amoebozoa).

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