Friday, July 31, 2015

Microbe Biodome Gut Punch to Monsanto

Horizontal Gene Transfer in the done by the microbes in our stomach...
Only microbes split and combine with each other...
Plants and animals do gene transfer, Having a baby or producing a seed...
My conclusions are that GMOs really do influence in a chaotic and uncontrollable way our gut bacteria; essentially taking over and destroying our microbial genome individually...
This will also include environmental toxins, like pesticides, and any chemical we touch or ingest. 
These GMO Bio Toxins or BT are HGT of our plants that are new microbes in themselves that can recombine with our own natural microbes...This is how we make our stomach a pesticide factory...That we will never be able to adapt to...One cannot adapt to DEATH...Only remove one's self from it occurring...We are life creatures...Not creatures of death.

Where are all the studies showing our microdome pesticide factory at?
 Maybe this is it...Little old me showing it...Using others data!

In this article, Comparative Metagenomics Revealed Commonly Enriched Gene Sets in Human Gut Microbiomes, I did a search for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) By using the word horizontal, and HGT.

..."In addition, we discovered a conjugative transposon family explosively amplified in human gut microbiomes, which strongly suggests that the intestine is a ‘hot spot’ for horizontal gene transfer between microbes."

..."Although this remains largely unproven, the distal colon has been regarded an ecologically suitable site for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between microorganisms due to its high microbial cell density.2 We identified many gene families related to transposases and bacteriophages in the metagenomic data, but their over-representation was noted only in certain individuals (Supplementary Table S5). "

..." By analysing these contigs, we found that CTnRINT members contain a variety of genes, such as those for ABC-type multidrug transport systems, in the regions corresponding to that for the vancomycin-resistance genes on Tn1549 (data not shown). As shown in Fig. 6B, other known Tn1549-like CTns also contain various accessory genes in this region. These findings strongly suggest that the CTnRINT family is largely involved in the process of HGT in the human intestine. It seems reasonable that conjugal elements, which mediate genetic exchanges and transmittance through cell–cell contact, are key players in HGT in the colon."

***..."Thirdly, a survey of the enriched genes revealed an abundance of mobile genetic elements in the human intestinal gene pool, emphasizing that the human gut microbiota is a “hot spot” for HGT between microbes. Of particular importance is the abundance of conjugal elements including CTnRINT. Considering their high transfer efficiency, the broad range of hosts, and the frequent carriage of drug-resistance genes, ***it would be prudent to reassess the heavy use of antibiotics in modern medicine.

*** (or in GMOs for that matter, since they use an antibiotic resistance bacteria to mark almost all GMOs...And they have found rampant evidence that these antibiotic resistant microbes have taken over our soil and water ways...besides our bodies...Kim)

This study looked at breast feed children vs. adults...
..."We suggest that the infant-type can be viewed as unstable, yet dynamic and adaptable. Conversely, the functional uniformity observed in the adult-type microbiota (Figs. 1, 3B, and 4) may be attributable to its more complex nature (Fig. 2 and Tables 1 and S2), which in turn suggests that the insurance hypothesis for the benefit of biodiversity may be relevant to the gut."

This takes to another study...To explain "Insurance Hypothesis"
Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity in a fluctuating environment: the insurance hypothesis.
Yachi S, Loreau M
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Feb 16; 96(4):1463-8.
[PubMed] [Ref list]
Although the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning has become a major focus in ecology, its significance in a fluctuating environment is still poorly understood. According to the insurance hypothesis, biodiversity insures ecosystems against declines in their functioning because many species provide greater guarantees that some will maintain functioning even if others fail. Here we examine this hypothesis theoretically. We develop a general stochastic dynamic model to assess the effects of species richness on the expected temporal mean and variance of ecosystem processes such as productivity, based on individual species' productivity responses to environmental fluctuations. Our model shows two major insurance effects of species richness on ecosystem productivity: (i) a buffering effect, i.e., a reduction in the temporal variance of productivity, and (ii) a performance-enhancing effect, i.e., an increase in the temporal mean of productivity. The strength of these insurance effects is determined by three factors: (i) the way ecosystem productivity is determined by individual species responses to environmental fluctuations, (ii) the degree of asynchronicity of these responses, and (iii) the detailed form of these responses. In particular, the greater the variance of the species responses, the lower the species richness at which the temporal mean of the ecosystem process saturates and the ecosystem becomes redundant. These results provide a strong theoretical foundation for the insurance hypothesis, which proves to be a fundamental principle for understanding the long-term effects of biodiversity on ecosystem processes."

This picture from another study ... is important...Shows antibiotic resistance in our gut...Read the side levels along the diagonal line...See the matching color on either side of the line...just spend some time looking and comparing colors and levels and where...Human and non-human...Are stomachs are the highest level it can go...maybe even higher...The pic doesn't show how high our guts content of antibiotic resistant really is.

..."Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the acquisition of genetic material from non-parental lineages, is known to be important in bacterial evolution1, 2. In particular, HGT provides rapid access to genetic innovations, allowing traits such as virulence3, antibiotic resistance4 and xenobiotic metabolism5 to spread through the human microbiome. Recent anecdotal studies providing snapshots of active gene flow on the human body have highlighted the need to determine the frequency of such recent transfers and the forces that govern these events4, 5. Here we report the discovery and characterization of a vast, human-associated network of gene exchange, large enough to directly compare the principal forces shaping HGT. We show that this network of 10,770 unique, recently transferred (more than 99% nucleotide identity) genes found in 2,235 full bacterial genomes, is shaped principally by ecology rather than geography or phylogeny, with most gene exchange occurring between isolates from ecologically similar, but geographically separated, environments. For example, we observe 25-fold more HGT between human-associated bacteria than among ecologically diverse non-human isolates (P = 3.0 × 10−270). We show that within the human microbiome this ecological architecture continues across multiple spatial scales, functional classes and ecological niches with transfer further enriched among bacteria that inhabit the same body site, have the same oxygen tolerance or have the same ability to cause disease. This structure offers a window into the molecular traits that define ecological niches, insight that we use to uncover sources of antibiotic resistance and identify genes associated with the pathology of meningitis and other diseases."

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